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NEJM期刊瞭望感染性疾病文章速览(七)

发布日期:2018-01-03来源:NEJM Journal Watch发布人:紫陌红尘

检索、翻译、整理:徐子琴

Updated Recommendations on Hepatitis B Screening and Vaccination

标题:乙肝筛查和疫苗的推荐更新

原文:Daniel D. Dressler, MD, MSc, SFHM, FACP reviewing Abara WE et al. Ann Intern Med 2017 Dec 5

New guidelines attempt to consolidate various existing recommendations.

结论:新指南试图合并各种现有的推荐。

Scarlet Fever Resurges in England

标题:猩红热再现英国

原文:Mary E. Wilson, MD reviewing Lamagni T et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 27Walker MJ and Brouwer S. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 27

A dramatic increase in scarlet fever in England starting in 2014 has affected all areas of the country.

结论:英国猩红热显著升高,该病自2014年起已影响覆盖了整个国家。

HPV Vaccination: Missed Opportunities Persist

标题:HPV疫苗:持续错失机会

原文:Deborah Lehman, MD reviewing Espinosa CM et al. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Sep 23

In over half of visits with pediatricians, and in nearly 75% of well-adolescent visits, HPV vaccine was not initiated in age-eligible, insured girls.

结论:超半数儿科医生和近75%健康青少年受访者中,HPV疫苗并没有在适龄、有保险女孩中开始使用。

Sensitizing Persister-State Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Tobramycin

标题:铜绿假单胞菌对妥布霉素的敏感持续状态

原文:George Sakoulas, MD reviewing Koeva M et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Dec 22

Fumarate markedly enhanced tobramycin's ability to kill P. aeruginosa persisters.

结论:延胡索酸盐标记强化了妥布霉素杀灭铜绿假单胞菌持续状态的能力。

Letermovir Approved to Prevent CMV Infection and Disease in Transplant Patients

Letermovir(乐特莫韦)批准用于预防移植患者CMV感染和疾病

原文:Daniel Kaul, MD reviewing 2017

The FDA approval provides a long-awaited alternative for preventing cytomegalovirus infection in allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

FDA批准其作为期待已久的替代方案用于同种异体移植干细胞移植受者中预防CMV感染。

Low Accuracy of Clinician Suspicion for Lyme Disease

标题:临床医生对莱姆病诊断准确度低

原文:Louis M. Bell, MD reviewing Nigrovic LE et al. Pediatrics 2017 Nov 24

Clinicians tend to overdiagnose and underdiagnose Lyme disease, making it prudent to confirm the disease with serologic testing.

结论:临床医生可能过度诊断和漏诊莱姆病,采用血清学试验诊断该病可更准确。

Do Anti-HCV DAA Regimens Increase Risk for HBV Infection Flares?

标题:抗HCV DAA疗法增加HBV感染激活风险?

原文:Atif Zaman, MD, MPH reviewing Liu C-J et al. Gastroenterology 2017 Nov 21

In HBV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving ledipasvir-sofosbuvir, 5% had clinically significant reactivation of HBV infection.

结论:接受雷迪帕韦和索非布韦治疗的HBV/HCV协同感染患者中,5%有HBV临床显性再活动的迹象。

FDA Approval of First Two-Drug HIV Regimen

标题:FDA批准首个两药HIV疗法

原文:Keith Henry, MD reviewing 2017 November 21 2017

The approval marks a new direction for ART maintenance therapy for selected patients.

结论:该批准标志着指定患者ART维持治疗的新方向。

New Shingles Subunit Vaccine Approved by ACIP

标题:ACIP批准了新的带状疱疹亚单位疫苗。

原文:Daniel Kaul, MD reviewing 2017

The subunit shingles vaccine is a major advance, preferred over the currently approved attenuated live vaccine.

结论:亚单位带状疱疹疫苗是一个重大进步,优于现有批准的减毒活疫苗。

Tedizolid Activity Against Nocardia

标题:Tedizolid特地唑胺)治疗奴卡菌属

原文:George Sakoulas, MD reviewing Brown-Elliot B and Wallace RJ Jr. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Nov 22

A microbiology analysis supports efficacy of this recently approved antimicrobial against clinically important Nocardia species.

结论:微生物学分析支持其用于抗重要临床意义的奴卡菌属。

Declining HIV Incidence in Uganda Ascribed to Scaled-Up Prevention and Treatment

标题:乌干达HIV发生率降低归功于预防和治疗比例的增加

原文:Salim S. Abdool Karim, MD, PhD reviewing Grabowski MK et al. N Engl J Med 2017 Nov 30

A 42% decline in HIV incidence in Uganda between 1999 and 2016 likely results from scaling up prevention, including behavioral change, circumcision, and antiretroviral treatment.

结论:1999-2016年乌干达HIV发生率下降了42%,可能是由于预防,包括行为改变、包皮环切术和抗逆转录病毒治疗的增加。