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NEJM期刊瞭望感染性疾病文章速览(八)

发布日期:2018-01-03来源:NEJM Journal Watch发布人:紫陌红尘

检索、翻译、整理:徐子琴

Maternal Antiretroviral Therapy and Infant Nevirapine Can Prevent Breast-Feeding–Associated HIV Transmission

标题:产妇抗逆转录治疗和婴儿萘维拉平预防母乳喂养相关的HIV传播

原文:Keith Henry, MD reviewing Flynn PM et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Dec 11

In a large randomized trial, incidence of HIV transmission from breast-feeding was 0.6% with either preventive strategy.

结论:一项大型随机试验中,无论采用哪种预防策略,HIV通过母乳喂养传播的发生率为0.6%。

When Should Biologics Be Stopped Prior to Joint Replacement Surgery?

标题:关节置换手术前生物制剂何时应该停用?

原文:Jonathan S. Coblyn, MD reviewing George MD et al. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017 Dec

Infliximab timing did not affect postsurgical infection risk in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement.

结论:英夫利昔使用时机并不影响实施膝或髋置换术后感染风险。 

Doxycycline PEP for Sexually Transmitted Infection

标题:多西环素PEP用于性传播疾病。

原文:Carlos del Rio, MD reviewing Molina J-M et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Dec 8

Doxycyline given for post-exposure prophylaxis to men who have sex with men reduced the occurrence of chlamydia and syphilis but not gonorrhea.

结论:多西环素用于男男性关系的男性暴露后预防降低衣原体和梅毒发生率,但不降低淋病发生率。

Declining Prevalence of Clostridium difficile BI/NAP1/027 Strain in the U.S.

标题:美国艰难梭菌BI/NAP1/027菌株患病率下降

原文:Thomas Glück, MD reviewing Giancola SE et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Nov 21

A retrospective survey among Veterans Affairs medical centers indicates declining prevalence for this hypervirulent strain associated with the most severe forms of C. difficile infection.

结论:退伍军人医疗中心的一项回顾性研究显示重型艰难梭菌感染相关的该高毒力菌株患病率下降。

 Failure of a Universal Test-and-Treat Strategy in Rural South Africa

标题:南非农村普遍的检测治疗策略失败

原文:Carlos del Rio, MD reviewing Iwuji CC et al. Lancet HIV 2017 Nov 30

In a community-based, cluster-randomized study, scaling up HIV testing and offering antiretroviral therapy regardless of CD4 count to those infected did not affect HIV incidence. Poor linkage to care was likely the limiting factor.

结论:一项以社区为基础的群随机研究中不管CD4计数情况,增加HIV检测和抗逆转录病毒治疗并不影响HIV发病率。治疗相关性差可能是局限的因素。

Mumps Outbreak Viral Spread — No Symptoms, No Shedding

流行性腮腺炎暴发病毒播散—无症状、无排毒

原文:Stephen G. Baum, MD reviewing Bonwitt J et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 1

During a mumps outbreak on a college campus, asymptomatic vaccinated students did not appear to shed virus; but serial sampling might have yielded different findings.

结论:大学校园一起流行性腮腺炎暴发事件中,无症状已接种疫苗的学生似乎并未排出病毒;但连续采样可能形成了不同的发现。

It Is Safe to Administer Rotavirus Vaccine to High-Risk Hospitalized Infants

标题:轮状病毒疫苗用于高危住院患儿是否安全?

原文:Deborah Lehman, MD reviewing Hofstetter AM et al. Pediatrics 2017 Dec 6

No nosocomial spread of vaccine-type virus was observed in a high-risk cohort receiving intensive care at one center.

结论:一个中心接受密切监护的高危人群并未观察到有疫苗型病毒的院内传播。

Changing Trend in Indications for Liver Transplantation in the U.S.

标题:美国肝移植适应症改变趋势

原文:Atif Zaman, MD, MPH reviewing Cholankeril G and Ahmed A. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Nov 30

Alcohol-related liver disease has surpassed HCV infection as the most common indication for liver transplantation.

结论:酒精相关肝脏疾病超过HCV感染,成为最常见的肝移植适应症。

Increasing Intraosteoblastic Activity of Daptomycin with Beta-Lactams

标题:β-内酰胺类可增加达托霉素成骨细胞内活性

原文:George Sakoulas, MD reviewing Dupieux C et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Dec

Oxacillin enhanced daptomycin's intracellular activity in this in vitro study.

结论:该体外研究表明苯唑西林增加达托霉素细胞内活性

Low-Level Pre-existing Antibodies Against Dengue Virus Predispose to Severe Disease

低水平预存的抗登革热病毒抗体易导致严重疾病

原文:Thomas Glück, MD reviewing Katzelnick LC et al. Science 2017 Nov 17

A large epidemiology study among Nicaraguan children indicates that dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome occur predominantly in those with low preexisting antibody titers.

结论:一项针对尼加拉瓜儿童的大型流行病学研究提示出血性登革热和休克综合症主要出现于低预存抗体滴度的患者。

Zika Vaccine Candidates Immunogenic and Safe in Phase 1 Trials

标题:寨卡疫苗申请者1期试验的免疫性和安全性

原文:Mary E. Wilson, MD reviewing Modjarrad K et al. Lancet 2017 Dec 4Gaudinski MR et al. Lancet 2017 Dec 4 Marques ETA and Burke DS. Lancet 2017 Dec 4

Candidate Zika vaccines using different approaches are immunogenic and have tolerable safety profiles; larger trials are under way.

结论:使用不同方法的寨卡疫苗有产生免疫性和可接受的安全性;更大的试验仍在进行。

Transmissible Ampicillin Resistance Existed Before Ampicillin Was Released

标题:传播的氨苄西林耐药在氨苄西林发布之前就存在

原文:Mary E. Wilson, MD reviewing Tran-Dien A et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 29 Van Puyvelde S et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 29

Wide use of penicillin G, including in animal feed in the 1950s, may have favored selection of resistance determinants in zoonotic Salmonella.

结论:青霉素G的广泛使用,包括20世纪50年代用于动物饲养,导致了动物传染性沙门菌的耐药选择。

Significant Benefit Associated with Accepting an Organ from an Increased-Risk Donor

标题:接受风险增加的捐赠者(IRD)的一个器官相关的显著收益

原文:Daniel Kaul, MD reviewing Bowring MG et al. Am J Transplant 2017 Nov 8

Patients who accepted an IRD kidney had lower 5-year mortality than those who declined IRD organs.

结论:接受IRD肾脏的患者5年病死率低于接受IRD下降器官的患者。

NSAIDs or Antibiotics for Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections: Balancing a Trade-Off

标题:非复杂尿路感染,使用NSAID还是抗生素:交换平衡

原文:Paul S. Mueller, MD, MPH, FACP reviewing Kronenberg A et al. BMJ 2017 Nov 8 Little P. BMJ 2017 Nov 8

Although the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac was inferior to norfloxacin for symptom resolution, diclofenac use substantially lowered antibiotic use.

结论:尽管非甾体类抗炎药双氯芬酸在症状缓解方面次于诺氟沙星,但可大幅度降低抗生素的使用。

Oral Capsule Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent C. difficile Infection

标题:口服胶囊的粪菌移植(FMT)治疗艰难梭菌感染

原文:Rajesh T. Gandhi, MD reviewing Kao D et al. JAMA 2017 Nov 28 Rao K et al. JAMA 2017 Nov 28

In a randomized trial, FMT delivery by capsules was as effective as administration by colonoscopy.

结论:一项随机试验表明通过胶囊的FMT跟结肠镜下治疗效果相同。

New Sepsis Criteria for Pneumonia Mortality: Is SIRS Out and qSOFA and CRB In?

标题:肺炎病死率的新的脓毒症标准:SIRS走了,qSOFA和CRB来了

原文:Neil M. Ampel, MD reviewing Ranzani OT et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 15

In a large retrospective study comparing various measures of sepsis and pneumonia severity, the qSOFA and CRB scales outperformed the previously used SIRS in predicting hospital mortality.

结论:一项大型回顾性研究对比了脓毒症和肺炎严重度的不同指标,qSOFA 和 CRB评分在预测医院病死率上超过了之前使用的SIRS。

Confirmation of Efficacy of the Bivalent Meningococcal B Vaccine

标题:双价B型脑膜炎链球菌疫苗的效力验证

原文:Richard T. Ellison III, MD reviewing Ostergaard L et al. N Engl J Med 2017 Dec 14

A phase III clinical trial provides further evidence on the efficacy of the licensed bivalent factor H–binding protein meningococcal B vaccine.

结论:III期临床试验在批准的二价因子H-结合蛋白B型脑膜炎链球菌的效力提供了更进一步证据。