发布日期:2018-01-03来源:NEJM Journal Watch发布人:紫陌红尘


Maternal Antiretroviral Therapy and Infant Nevirapine Can Prevent Breast-Feeding–Associated HIV Transmission


原文:Keith Henry, MD reviewing Flynn PM et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Dec 11

In a large randomized trial, incidence of HIV transmission from breast-feeding was 0.6% with either preventive strategy.


When Should Biologics Be Stopped Prior to Joint Replacement Surgery?


原文:Jonathan S. Coblyn, MD reviewing George MD et al. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017 Dec

Infliximab timing did not affect postsurgical infection risk in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement.


Doxycycline PEP for Sexually Transmitted Infection


原文:Carlos del Rio, MD reviewing Molina J-M et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Dec 8

Doxycyline given for post-exposure prophylaxis to men who have sex with men reduced the occurrence of chlamydia and syphilis but not gonorrhea.


Declining Prevalence of Clostridium difficile BI/NAP1/027 Strain in the U.S.


原文:Thomas Glück, MD reviewing Giancola SE et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Nov 21

A retrospective survey among Veterans Affairs medical centers indicates declining prevalence for this hypervirulent strain associated with the most severe forms of C. difficile infection.


 Failure of a Universal Test-and-Treat Strategy in Rural South Africa


原文:Carlos del Rio, MD reviewing Iwuji CC et al. Lancet HIV 2017 Nov 30

In a community-based, cluster-randomized study, scaling up HIV testing and offering antiretroviral therapy regardless of CD4 count to those infected did not affect HIV incidence. Poor linkage to care was likely the limiting factor.


Mumps Outbreak Viral Spread — No Symptoms, No Shedding


原文:Stephen G. Baum, MD reviewing Bonwitt J et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 1

During a mumps outbreak on a college campus, asymptomatic vaccinated students did not appear to shed virus; but serial sampling might have yielded different findings.


It Is Safe to Administer Rotavirus Vaccine to High-Risk Hospitalized Infants


原文:Deborah Lehman, MD reviewing Hofstetter AM et al. Pediatrics 2017 Dec 6

No nosocomial spread of vaccine-type virus was observed in a high-risk cohort receiving intensive care at one center.


Changing Trend in Indications for Liver Transplantation in the U.S.


原文:Atif Zaman, MD, MPH reviewing Cholankeril G and Ahmed A. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Nov 30

Alcohol-related liver disease has surpassed HCV infection as the most common indication for liver transplantation.


Increasing Intraosteoblastic Activity of Daptomycin with Beta-Lactams


原文:George Sakoulas, MD reviewing Dupieux C et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Dec

Oxacillin enhanced daptomycin's intracellular activity in this in vitro study.


Low-Level Pre-existing Antibodies Against Dengue Virus Predispose to Severe Disease


原文:Thomas Glück, MD reviewing Katzelnick LC et al. Science 2017 Nov 17

A large epidemiology study among Nicaraguan children indicates that dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome occur predominantly in those with low preexisting antibody titers.


Zika Vaccine Candidates Immunogenic and Safe in Phase 1 Trials


原文:Mary E. Wilson, MD reviewing Modjarrad K et al. Lancet 2017 Dec 4Gaudinski MR et al. Lancet 2017 Dec 4 Marques ETA and Burke DS. Lancet 2017 Dec 4

Candidate Zika vaccines using different approaches are immunogenic and have tolerable safety profiles; larger trials are under way.


Transmissible Ampicillin Resistance Existed Before Ampicillin Was Released


原文:Mary E. Wilson, MD reviewing Tran-Dien A et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 29 Van Puyvelde S et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 29

Wide use of penicillin G, including in animal feed in the 1950s, may have favored selection of resistance determinants in zoonotic Salmonella.


Significant Benefit Associated with Accepting an Organ from an Increased-Risk Donor


原文:Daniel Kaul, MD reviewing Bowring MG et al. Am J Transplant 2017 Nov 8

Patients who accepted an IRD kidney had lower 5-year mortality than those who declined IRD organs.


NSAIDs or Antibiotics for Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections: Balancing a Trade-Off


原文:Paul S. Mueller, MD, MPH, FACP reviewing Kronenberg A et al. BMJ 2017 Nov 8 Little P. BMJ 2017 Nov 8

Although the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac was inferior to norfloxacin for symptom resolution, diclofenac use substantially lowered antibiotic use.


Oral Capsule Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent C. difficile Infection


原文:Rajesh T. Gandhi, MD reviewing Kao D et al. JAMA 2017 Nov 28 Rao K et al. JAMA 2017 Nov 28

In a randomized trial, FMT delivery by capsules was as effective as administration by colonoscopy.


New Sepsis Criteria for Pneumonia Mortality: Is SIRS Out and qSOFA and CRB In?


原文:Neil M. Ampel, MD reviewing Ranzani OT et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 15

In a large retrospective study comparing various measures of sepsis and pneumonia severity, the qSOFA and CRB scales outperformed the previously used SIRS in predicting hospital mortality.

结论:一项大型回顾性研究对比了脓毒症和肺炎严重度的不同指标,qSOFA 和 CRB评分在预测医院病死率上超过了之前使用的SIRS。

Confirmation of Efficacy of the Bivalent Meningococcal B Vaccine


原文:Richard T. Ellison III, MD reviewing Ostergaard L et al. N Engl J Med 2017 Dec 14

A phase III clinical trial provides further evidence on the efficacy of the licensed bivalent factor H–binding protein meningococcal B vaccine.